Constitution of India

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Markandey Katju at JNU

The following is the text of a speech delivered by Justice Markandey Katju, chairman of the Press Council of India, at Jawaharlal Nehru University on November 14, 2011.

On Corruption

Constitution of India: Advertisements and Freedom of Speech

Freedom of speech and expression is a natural right guaranteed under the Article 19 (1) (a) of the Constitution of India. Freedom of speech and expression implies the right to express one’s thoughts and ideas freely via any medium, such as gestures, signs, verbal communication, print media, radio or television.

Constitution of India: SC says Interim Bail is a Constitutional Right

In July 2010, the Supreme Court of India held that a person is entitled to interim bail pending disposal of the main application, as this is a constitutional right in consonance with Article 21 of the Constitution of India. The ruling was delivered to protect the reputation of persons, who are lodged in prison.

Legal Rights: The Peoples’ Right to Food

Legal rights of citizens include the right to live with dignity as enshrined in the Constitution of India. This includes the legal right to have food. Now, if you visit a food outlet in India, you will definitely be surprised at the huge number of customers gathered there, enjoying food over conversation. Yet, nobody can deny the fact that a significant proportion of India’s population remains too poor to afford such a luxury.

Constitution of India: The Concept of Equal Pay for Equal Work

Article 39 (c) of the Constitution of India provides for Directive Principles of State Policy. This aims for equitable distribution of resources of production among all citizens. It also aims to prevent the concentration of wealth in the hands of a few. One such principle is ‘Equal Pay for Equal Work.’ As the name itself suggests, its purpose is to ensure that individuals who are doing an equal amount of work shall be entitled to equal remuneration. The term ‘equal pay’ includes basic salary, and also other benefits, such as bonuses and allowances.

Writ of Habeas Corpus as a Legal Remedy

Habeas corpus is a Latin term which means ‘have the body’. The concept of writ of habeas corpus has originated from England. This is a writ or legal action which can be used by a person to seek relief from illegal detention. The writ of habeas corpus saves a person from harm caused by an unfair action of the legal system.

FAQs on Arrest

The Constitution of India assures various rights to its citizens even when they are arrested in criminal cases. It will help to know the circumstances that can lead to one’s arrest and the rights that one can exercise during and after the arrest.

Justice Sarosh Homi Kapadia to Be India's Next CJI

The Supreme Court of India is the country’s highest court of appeal. The Supreme Court was established on 28 January 1950. The composition and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India is laid down in Articles 124 to 147 of the Constitution of India. Typically, the Supreme Court comprises of the Chief Justice, (who is referred to with respect as the CJI) and 30 other judges.

Press Freedom in India: A Cornerstone for Democracy

The press or media acts as a watchdog of democracy. In fact, post-independence, the India press has played a vital role in restraining corruption and injustice in the nation. The press is also instrumental in arousing the general public’s interest in the government and its operations. However, like everything else, there is a flipside to this as well. Over the last few years, yellow journalism has been rampant in Indian press, which has lead to widespread misconducts in the nation.

Article 19 and the Freedom of Speech and Expression

Article 19 is an international human rights organization, that focuses on safeguarding and promoting the concept of  freedom of expression worldwide. The group enforces that this right is necessary to strengthen democracy and pre-empt conflict and war. Article 19 enforces its principles in collaboration with several national government and non-profit organizations. In fact, Article 19’s network is spread in over 30 countries across Africa, Europe, Latin America, Middle East and Asia, Latin America and the Middle East - to lead institutional, cultural and legal change.